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The Project Gutenberg eBook of An Elementary Course in Synthetic Projective Geometry by, Derrick Norman Lehmer This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook. Title: An Elementary Course in Synthetic Projective Geometry Author: Derrick Norman Lehmer Release Date: November 4, 2005 [eBook #17001] [Most recently updated: June 22, 2021] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN SYNTHETIC PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY *** An Elementary Course in Synthetic Projective Geometry by Lehmer, Derrick Norman Edition 1 , ( November 4, 2005 ) Preface The following course is intended to give, in as simple a way as possible, the essentials of synthetic projective geometry. While, in the main, the theory is developed along the well-beaten track laid out by the great masters of the subject, it is believed that there has been a slight smoothing of the road in some places. Especially will this be observed in the chapter on Involution. The author has never felt satisfied with the usual treatment of that subject by means of circles and anharmonic ratios. A purely projective notion ought not to be based on metrical foundations. Metrical developments should be made there, as elsewhere in the theory, by the introduction of infinitely distant elements. The author has departed from the century-old custom of writing in parallel columns each theorem and its dual. He has not found that it conduces to sharpness of vision to try to focus his eyes on two things at once. Those who prefer the usual method of procedure can, of course, develop the two sets of theorems side by side; the author has not found this the better plan in actual teaching. As regards nomenclature, the author has followed the lead of the earlier writers in English, and has called the system of lines in a plane which all pass through a point a pencil of rays instead of a bundle of rays, as later writers seem inclined to do. For a point considered as made up of all the lines and planes through it he has ventured to use the term point system, as being the natural dualization of the usual term plane system. He has also rejected the term foci of an involution, and has not used the customary terms for classifying involutions—hyperbolic involution, elliptic involution and parabolic involution. He has found that all these terms are very confusing to the student, who inevitably tries to connect them in some way with the conic sections. Enough examples have been provided to give the student a clear grasp of the theory. Many are of sufficient generality to serve as a basis for individual investigation on the part of the student. Thus, the third example at the end of the first chapter will be found to be very fruitful in interesting results. A correspondence is there indicated between lines in space and circles through a fixed point in space. If the student will trace a few of the consequences of that correspondence, and determine what configurations of circles correspond to intersecting lines, to lines in a plane, to lines of a plane pencil, to lines cutting three skew lines, etc., he will have acquired no little practice in picturing to himself figures in space. The writer has not followed the usual practice of inserting historical notes at the foot of the page, and has tried instead, in the last chapter, to give a consecutive account of the history of pure geometry, or, at least, of as much of it as the student will be able to appreciate who has mastered the course as given in the preceding chapters. One is not apt to get a very wide view of the history of a subject by reading a [pg iii] [pg iv] [pg v] hundred biographical footnotes, arranged in no sort of sequence. The writer, moreover, feels that the proper time to learn the history of a subject is after the student has some general ideas of the subject itself. The course is not intended to furnish an illustration of how a subject may be developed, from the smallest possible number of fundamental assumptions. The author is aware of the importance of work of this sort, but he does not believe it is possible at the present time to write a book along such lines which shall be of much use for elementary students. For the purposes of this course the student should have a thorough grounding in ordinary elementary geometry so far as to include the study of the circle and of similar triangles. No solid geometry is needed beyond the little used in the proof of Desargues' theorem (25), and, except in certain metrical developments of the general theory, there will be no call for a knowledge of trigonometry or analytical geometry. Naturally the student who is equipped with these subjects as well as with the calculus will be a little more mature, and may be expected to follow the course all the more easily. The author has had no difficulty, however, in presenting it to students in the freshman class at the University of California. The subject of synthetic projective geometry is, in the opinion of the writer, destined shortly to force its way down into the secondary schools; and if this little book helps to accelerate the movement, he will feel amply repaid for the task of working the materials into a form available for such schools as well as for the lower classes in the university. The material for the course has been drawn from many sources. The author is chiefly indebted to the classical works of Reye, Cremona, Steiner, Poncelet, and Von Staudt. Acknowledgments and thanks are also due to Professor Walter C. Eells, of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, for his searching examination and keen criticism of the manuscript; also to Professor Herbert Ellsworth Slaught, of The University of Chicago, for his many valuable suggestions, and to Professor B. M. Woods and Dr. H. N. Wright, of the University of California, who have tried out the methods of presentation, in their own classes. D. N. LEHMER Berkeley, California Contents Preface Contents CHAPTER I - ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE 1. Definition of one-to-one correspondence 2. Consequences of one-to-one correspondence 3. Applications in mathematics 4. One-to-one correspondence and enumeration 5. Correspondence between a part and the whole 6. Infinitely distant point 7. Axial pencil; fundamental forms 8. Perspective position 9. Projective relation 10. Infinity-to-one correspondence 11. Infinitudes of different orders 12. Points in a plane 13. Lines through a point 14. Planes through a point 15. Lines in a plane 16. Plane system and point system 17. Planes in space 18. Points of space 19. Space system 20. Lines in space 21. Correspondence between points and numbers 22. Elements at infinity PROBLEMS CHAPTER II - RELATIONS BETWEEN FUNDAMENTAL FORMS IN ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE WITH EACH OTHER 23. Seven fundamental forms 24. Projective properties 25. Desargues's theorem 26. Fundamental theorem concerning two complete quadrangles 27. Importance of the theorem 28. Restatement of the theorem 29. Four harmonic points 30. Harmonic conjugates 31. Importance of the notion of four harmonic points 32. Projective invariance of four harmonic points 33. Four harmonic lines 34. Four harmonic planes [pg v] [pg vi] 35. Summary of results 36. Definition of projectivity 37. Correspondence between harmonic conjugates 38. Separation of harmonic conjugates 39. Harmonic conjugate of the point at infinity 40. Projective theorems and metrical theorems. Linear construction 41. Parallels and mid-points 42. Division of segment into equal parts 43. Numerical relations 44. Algebraic formula connecting four harmonic points 45. Further formulae 46. Anharmonic ratio PROBLEMS CHAPTER III - COMBINATION OF TWO PROJECTIVELY RELATED FUNDAMENTAL FORMS 47. Superposed fundamental forms. Self-corresponding elements 48. Special case 49. Fundamental theorem. Postulate of continuity 50. Extension of theorem to pencils of rays and planes 51. Projective point-rows having a self-corresponding point in common 52. Point-rows in perspective position 53. Pencils in perspective position 54. Axial pencils in perspective position 55. Point-row of the second order 56. Degeneration of locus 57. Pencils of rays of the second order 58. Degenerate case 59. Cone of the second order PROBLEMS CHAPTER IV - POINT-ROWS OF THE SECOND ORDER 60. Point-row of the second order defined 61. Tangent line 62. Determination of the locus 63. Restatement of the problem 64. Solution of the fundamental problem 65. Different constructions for the figure 66. Lines joining four points of the locus to a fifth 67. Restatement of the theorem 68. Further important theorem 69. Pascal's theorem 70. Permutation of points in Pascal's theorem 71. Harmonic points on a point-row of the second order 72. Determination of the locus 73. Circles and conics as point-rows of the second order 74. Conic through five points 75. Tangent to a conic 76. Inscribed quadrangle 77. Inscribed triangle 78. Degenerate conic PROBLEMS CHAPTER V - PENCILS OF RAYS OF THE SECOND ORDER 79. Pencil of rays of the second order defined 80. Tangents to a circle 81. Tangents to a conic 82. Generating point-rows lines of the system 83. Determination of the pencil 84. Brianchon's theorem 85. Permutations of lines in Brianchon's theorem 86. Construction of the penvil by Brianchon's theorem 87. Point of contact of a tangent to a conic 88. Circumscribed quadrilateral 89. Circumscribed triangle 90. Use of Brianchon's theorem 91. Harmonic tangents 92. Projectivity and perspectivity 93. Degenerate case 94. Law of duality PROBLEMS CHAPTER VI - POLES AND POLARS 95. Inscribed and circumscribed quadrilaterals 96. Definition of the polar line of a point 97. Further defining properties 98. Definition of the pole of a line 99. Fundamental theorem of poles and polars 100. Conjugate points and lines 101. Construction of the polar line of a given point 102. Self-polar triangle 103. Pole and polar projectively related 104. Duality 105. Self-dual theorems 106. Other correspondences PROBLEMS CHAPTER VII - METRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CONIC SECTIONS 107. Diameters. Center 108. Various theorems 109. Conjugate diameters 110. Classification of conics 111. Asymptotes 112. Various theorems 113. Theorems concerning asymptotes 114. Asymptotes and conjugate diameters 115. Segments cut off on a chord by hyperbola and its asymptotes 116. Application of the theorem 117. Triangle formed by the two asymptotes and a tangent 118. Equation of hyperbola referred to the asymptotes 119. Equation of parabola 120. Equation of central conics referred to conjugate diameters PROBLEMS CHAPTER VIII - INVOLUTION 121. Fundamental theorem 122. Linear construction 123. Definition of involution of points on a line 124. Double-points in an involution 125. Desargues's theorem concerning conics through four points 126. Degenerate conics of the system 127. Conics through four points touching a given line 128. Double correspondence 129. Steiner's construction 130. Application of Steiner's construction to double correspondence 131. Involution of points on a point-row of the second order. 132. Involution of rays 133. Double rays 134. Conic through a fixed point touching four lines 135. Double correspondence 136. Pencils of rays of the second order in involution 137. Theorem concerning pencils of the second order in involution 138. Involution of rays determined by a conic 139. Statement of theorem 140. Dual of the theorem PROBLEMS CHAPTER IX - METRICAL PROPERTIES OF INVOLUTIONS 141. Introduction of infinite point; center of involution 142. Fundamental metrical theorem 143. Existence of double points 144. Existence of double rays 145. Construction of an involution by means of circles 146. Circular points 147. Pairs in an involution of rays which are at right angles. Circular involution 148. Axes of conics 149. Points at which the involution determined by a conic is circular 150. Properties of such a point 151. Position of such a point 152. Discovery of the foci of the conic 153. The circle and the parabola 154. Focal properties of conics 155. Case of the parabola 156. Parabolic reflector 157. Directrix. Principal axis. Vertex 158. Another definition of a conic 159. Eccentricity 160. Sum or difference of focal distances PROBLEMS CHAPTER X - ON THE HISTORY OF SYNTHETIC PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY 161. Ancient results 162. Unifying principles 163. Desargues 164. Poles and polars 165. Desargues's theorem concerning conics through four points 166. Extension of the theory of poles and polars to space 167. Desargues's method of describing a conic 168. Reception of Desargues's work 169. Conservatism in Desargues's time 170. Desargues's style of writing 171. Lack of appreciation of Desargues 172. Pascal and his theorem 173. Pascal's essay 174. Pascal's originality 175. De la Hire and his work 176. Descartes and his influence 177. Newton and Maclaurin 178. Maclaurin's construction 179. Descriptive geometry and the second revival 180. Duality, homology, continuity, contingent relations 181. Poncelet and Cauchy 182. The work of Poncelet 183. The debt which analytic geometry owes to synthetic geometry 184. Steiner and his work 185. Von Staudt and his work 186. Recent developments INDEX CHAPTER I - ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE 1. Definition of one-to-one correspondence. Given any two sets of individuals, if it is possible to set up such a correspondence between the two sets that to any individual in one set corresponds one and only one individual in the other, then the two sets are said to be in one-to- one correspondence with each other. This notion, simple as it is, is of fundamental importance in all branches of science. The process of counting is nothing but a setting up of a one-to-one correspondence between the objects to be counted and certain words, 'one,' 'two,' 'three,' etc., in the mind. Many savage peoples have discovered no better method of counting than by setting up a one-to-one correspondence between the objects to be counted and their fingers. The scientist who busies himself with naming and classifying the objects of nature is only setting up a one-to-one correspondence between the objects and certain words which serve, not as a means of counting the objects, but of listing them in a convenient way. Thus he may be able to marshal and array his material in such a way as to bring to light relations that may exist between the objects themselves. Indeed, the whole notion of language springs from this idea of one-to-one correspondence. 2. Consequences of one-to-one correspondence. The most useful and interesting problem that may arise in connection with any one-to- one correspondence is to determine just what relations existing between the individuals of one assemblage may be carried over to another assemblage in one-to-one correspondence with it. It is a favorite error to assume that whatever holds for one set must also hold for the other. Magicians are apt to assign magic properties to many of the words and symbols which they are in the habit of using, and scientists are constantly confusing objective things with the subjective formulas for them. After the physicist has set up correspondences between physical facts and mathematical formulas, the "interpretation" of these formulas is his most important and difficult task. 3. In mathematics, effort is constantly being made to set up one-to-one correspondences between simple notions and more complicated ones, or between the well-explored fields of research and fields less known. Thus, by means of the mechanism employed in analytic geometry, algebraic theorems are made to yield geometric ones, and vice versa. In geometry we get at the properties of the conic sections by means of the properties of the straight line, and cubic surfaces are studied by means of the plane. Fig. 1 [pg 1] [pg 2] [pg 3] Fig. 2 4. One-to-one correspondence and enumeration. If a one-to-one correspondence has been set up between the objects of one set and the objects of another set, then the inference may usually be drawn that they have the same number of elements. If, however, there is an infinite number of individuals in each of the two sets, the notion of counting is necessarily ruled out. It may be possible, nevertheless, to set up a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of two sets even when the number is infinite. Thus, it is easy to set up such a correspondence between the points of a line an inch long and the points of a line two inches long. For let the lines (Fig. 1) be AB and A'B'. Join AA' and BB', and let these joining lines meet in S. For every point C on AB a point C' may be found on A'B' by joining C to S and noting the point C' where CS meets A'B'. Similarly, a point C may be found on AB for any point C' on A'B'. The correspondence is clearly one-to- one, but it would be absurd to infer from this that there were just as many points on AB as on A'B'. In fact, it would be just as reasonable to infer that there were twice as many points on A'B' as on AB. For if we bend A'B' into a circle with center at S (Fig. 2), we see that for every point C on AB there are two points on A'B'. Thus it is seen that the notion of one-to-one correspondence is more extensive than the notion of counting, and includes the notion of counting only when applied to finite assemblages. 5. Correspondence between a part and the whole of an infinite assemblage. In the discussion of the last paragraph the remarkable fact was brought to light that it is sometimes possible to set the elements of an assemblage into one-to-one correspondence with a part of those elements. A moment's reflection will convince one that this is never possible when there is a finite number of elements in the assemblage.— Indeed, we may take this property as our definition of an infinite assemblage, and say that an infinite assemblage is one that may be put into one-to-one correspondence with part of itself. This has the advantage of being a positive definition, as opposed to the usual negative definition of an infinite assemblage as one that cannot be counted. 6. Infinitely distant point. We have illustrated above a simple method of setting the points of two lines into one-to-one correspondence. The same illustration will serve also to show how it is possible to set the points on a line into one-to-one correspondence with the lines through a point. Thus, for any point C on the line AB there is a line SC through S. We must assume the line AB extended indefinitely in both directions, however, if we are to have a point on it for every line through S; and even with this extension there is one line through S, according to Euclid's postulate, which does not meet the line AB and which therefore has no point on AB to correspond to it. In order to smooth out this discrepancy we are accustomed to assume the existence of an infinitely distant point on the line AB and to assign this point as the corresponding point of the exceptional line of S. With this understanding, then, we may say that we have set the lines through a point and the points on a line into one-to-one correspondence. This correspondence is of such fundamental importance in the study of projective geometry that a special name is given to it. Calling the totality of points on a line a point-row, and the totality of lines through a point a pencil of rays, we say that the point-row and the pencil related as above are in perspective position, or that they are perspectively related. 7. Axial pencil; fundamental forms. A similar correspondence may be set up between the points on a line and the planes through another line which does not meet the first. Such a system of planes is called an axial pencil, and the three assemblages—the point-row, the pencil of rays, and the axial pencil—are called fundamental forms. The fact that they may all be set into one-to-one correspondence with each other is expressed by saying that they are of the same order. It is usual also to speak of them as of the first order. We shall see presently that there are other assemblages which cannot be put into this sort of one-to-one correspondence with the points on a line, and that they will very reasonably be said to be of a higher order. 8. Perspective position. We have said that a point-row and a pencil of rays are in perspective position if each ray of the pencil goes through the point of the point-row which corresponds to it. Two pencils of rays are also said to be in perspective position if corresponding rays meet on a straight line which is called the axis of perspectivity. Also, two point-rows are said to be in perspective position if corresponding points lie on straight lines through a point which is called the center of perspectivity. A point-row and an axial pencil are in perspective position if each plane of the pencil goes through the point on the point-row which corresponds to it, and an axial pencil and a pencil of rays are in perspective position if each ray lies in the plane which corresponds to it; and, finally, two axial pencils are perspectively related if corresponding planes meet in a plane. [pg 4] [pg 5] [pg 6] 9. Projective relation. It is easy to imagine a more general correspondence between the points of two point-rows than the one just described. If we take two perspective pencils, A and S, then a point-row a perspective to A will be in one-to-one correspondence with a point-row b perspective to B, but corresponding points will not, in general, lie on lines which all pass through a point. Two such point-rows are said to be projectively related, or simply projective to each other. Similarly, two pencils of rays, or of planes, are projectively related to each other if they are perspective to two perspective point-rows. This idea will be generalized later on. It is important to note that between the elements of two projective fundamental forms there is a one-to-one correspondence, and also that this correspondence is in general continuous; that is, by taking two elements of one form sufficiently close to each other, the two corresponding elements in the other form may be made to approach each other arbitrarily close. In the case of point-rows this continuity is subject to exception in the neighborhood of the point "at infinity." 10. Infinity-to-one correspondence. It might be inferred that any infinite assemblage could be put into one-to-one correspondence with any other. Such is not the case, however, if the correspondence is to be continuous, between the points on a line and the points on a plane. Consider two lines which lie in different planes, and take m points on one and n points on the other. The number of lines joining the m points of one to the n points jof the other is clearly mn. If we symbolize the totality of points on a line by [infinity], then a reasonable symbol for the totality of lines drawn to cut two lines would be [infinity]2. Clearly, for every point on one line there are [infinity] lines cutting across the other, so that the correspondence might be called [infinity]-to-one. Thus the assemblage of lines cutting across two lines is of higher order than the assemblage of points on a line; and as we have called the point-row an assemblage of the first order, the system of lines cutting across two lines ought to be called of the second order. 11. Infinitudes of different orders. Now it is easy to set up a one-to-one correspondence between the points in a plane and the system of lines cutting across two lines which lie in different planes. In fact, each line of the system of lines meets the plane in one point, and each point in the plane determines one and only one line cutting across the two given lines—namely, the line of intersection of the two planes determined by the given point with each of the given lines. The assemblage of points in the plane is thus of the same order as that of the lines cutting across two lines which lie in different planes, and ought therefore to be spoken of as of the second order. We express all these results as follows: 12. If the infinitude of points on a line is taken as the infinitude of the first order, then the infinitude of lines in a pencil of rays and the infinitude of planes in an axial pencil are also of the first order, while the infinitude of lines cutting across two "skew" lines, as well as the infinitude of points in a plane, are of the second order. 13. If we join each of the points of a plane to a point not in that plane, we set up a one-to-one correspondence between the points in a plane and the lines through a point in space. Thus the infinitude of lines through a point in space is of the second order. 14. If to each line through a point in space we make correspond that plane at right angles to it and passing through the same point, we see that the infinitude of planes through a point in space is of the second order. 15. If to each plane through a point in space we make correspond the line in which it intersects a given plane, we see that the infinitude of lines in a plane is of the second order. This may also be seen by setting up a one-to-one correspondence between the points on a plane and the lines of that plane. Thus, take a point S not in the plane. Join any point M of the plane to S. Through S draw a plane at right angles to MS. This meets the given plane in a line m which may be taken as corresponding to the point M. Another very important method of setting up a one-to-one correspondence between lines and points in a plane will be given later, and many weighty consequences will be derived from it. 16. Plane system and point system. The plane, considered as made up of the points and lines in it, is called a plane system and is a fundamental form of the second order. The point, considered as made up of all the lines and planes passing through it, is called a point system and is also a fundamental form of the second order. 17. If now we take three lines in space all lying in different planes, and select l points on the first, m points on the second, and n points on the third, then the total number of planes passing through one of the selected points on each line will be lmn. It is reasonable, therefore, to symbolize the totality of planes that are determined by the [infinity] points on each of the three lines by [infinity]3, and to call it an infinitude of the third order. But it is easily seen that every plane in space is included in this totality, so that the totality of planes in space is an infinitude of the third order. 18. Consider now the planes perpendicular to these three lines. Every set of three planes so drawn will determine a point in space, and, conversely, through every point in space may be drawn one and only one set of three planes at right angles to the three given lines. It follows, therefore, that the totality of points in space is an infinitude of the third order. [pg 7] [pg 8] [pg 9] 19. Space system. Space of three dimensions, considered as made up of all its planes and points, is then a fundamental form of the third order, which we shall call a space system. 20. Lines in space. If we join the twofold infinity of points in one plane with the twofold infinity of points in another plane, we get a totality of lines of space which is of the fourth order of infinity. The totality of lines in space gives, then, a fundamental form of the fourth order. 21. Correspondence between points and numbers. In the theory of analytic geometry a one-to-one correspondence is assumed to exist between points on a line and numbers. In order to justify this assumption a very extended definition of number must be made use of. A one- to-one correspondence is then set up between points in the plane and pairs of numbers, and also between points in space and sets of three numbers. A single constant will serve to define the position of a point on a line; two, a point in the plane; three, a point in space; etc. In the same theory a one-to-one correspondence is set up between loci in the plane and equations in two variables; between surfaces in space and equations in three variables; etc. The equation of a line in a plane involves two constants, either of which may take an infinite number of values. From this it follows that there is an infinity of lines in the plane which is of the second order if the infinity of points on a line is assumed to be of the first. In the same way a circle is determined by three conditions; a sphere by four; etc. We might then expect to be able to set up a one-to-one correspondence between circles in a plane and points, or planes in space, or between spheres and lines in space. Such, indeed, is the case, and it is often possible to infer theorems concerning spheres from theorems concerning lines, and vice versa. It is possibilities such as these that, give to the theory of one-to-one correspondence its great importance for the mathematician. It must not be forgotten, however, that we are considering only continuous correspondences. It is perfectly possible to set, up a one-to-one correspondence between the points of a line and the points of a plane, or, indeed, between the points of a line and the points of a space of any finite number of dimensions, if the correspondence is not restricted to be continuous. 22. Elements at infinity. A final word is necessary in order to explain a phrase which is in constant use in the study of projective geometry. We have spoken of the "point at infinity" on a straight line—a fictitious point only used to bridge over the exceptional case when we are setting up a one-to-one correspondence between the points of a line and the lines through a point. We speak of it as "a point" and not as "points," because in the geometry studied by Euclid we assume only one line through a point parallel to a given line. In the same sense we speak of all the points at infinity in a plane as lying on a line, "the line at infinity," because the straight line is the simplest locus we can imagine which has only one point in common with any line in the plane. Likewise we speak of the "plane at infinity," because that seems the most convenient way of imagining the points at infinity in space. It must not be inferred that these conceptions have any essential connection with physical facts, or that other means of picturing to ourselves the infinitely distant configurations are not possible. In other branches of mathematics, notably in the theory of functions of a complex variable, quite different assumptions are made and quite different conceptions of the elements at infinity are used. As we can know nothing experimentally about such things, we are at liberty to make any assumptions we please, so long as they are consistent and serve some useful purpose. PROBLEMS 1. Since there is a threefold infinity of points in space, there must be a sixfold infinity of pairs of points in space. Each pair of points determines a line. Why, then, is there not a sixfold infinity of lines in space? 2. If there is a fourfold infinity of lines in space, why is it that there is not a fourfold infinity of planes through a point, seeing that each line in space determines a plane through that point? 3. Show that there is a fourfold infinity of circles in space that pass through a fixed point. (Set up a one-to-one correspondence between the axes of the circles and lines in space.) 4. Find the order of infinity of all the lines of space that cut across a given line; across two given lines; across three given lines; across four given lines. 5. Find the order of infinity of all the spheres in space that pass through a given point; through two given points; through three given points; through four given points. 6. Find the order of infinity of all the circles on a sphere; of all the circles on a sphere that pass through a fixed point; through two fixed points; through three fixed points; of all the circles in space; of all the circles that cut across a given line. 7. Find the order of infinity of all lines tangent to a sphere; of all planes tangent to a sphere; of lines and planes tangent to a sphere and passing through a fixed point. 8. Set up a one-to-one correspondence between the series of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... and the series of even numbers 2, 4, 6, 8 .... Are we justified in saying that there are just as many even numbers as there are numbers altogether? 9. Is the axiom "The whole is greater than one of its parts" applicable to infinite assemblages? 10. Make out a classified list of all the infinitudes of the first, second, third, and fourth orders mentioned in this chapter. [pg 10] [pg 11] [pg 12] [pg 13] [pg 14] CHAPTER II - RELATIONS BETWEEN FUNDAMENTAL FORMS IN ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE WITH EACH OTHER 23. Seven fundamental forms. In the preceding chapter we have called attention to seven fundamental forms: the point-row, the pencil of rays, the axial pencil, the plane system, the point system, the space system, and the system of lines in space. These fundamental forms are the material which we intend to use in building up a general theory which will be found to include ordinary geometry as a special case. We shall be concerned, not with measurement of angles and areas or line segments as in the study of Euclid, but in combining and comparing these fundamental forms and in "generating" new forms by means of them. In problems of construction we shall make no use of measurement, either of angles or of segments, and except in certain special applications of the general theory we shall not find it necessary to require more of ourselves than the ability to draw the line joining two points, or to find the point of intersections of two lines, or the line of intersection of two planes, or, in general, the common elements of two fundamental forms. 24. Projective properties. Our chief interest in this chapter will be the discovery of relations between the elements of one form which hold between the corresponding elements of any other form in one-to-one correspondence with it. We have already called attention to the danger of assuming that whatever relations hold between the elements of one assemblage must also hold between the corresponding elements of any assemblage in one-to-one correspondence with it. This false assumption is the basis of the so-called "proof by analogy" so much in vogue among speculative theorists. When it appears that certain relations existing between the points of a given point-row do not necessitate the same relations between the corresponding elements of another in one-to-one correspondence with it, we should view with suspicion any application of the "proof by analogy" in realms of thought where accurate judgments are not so easily made. For example, if in a given point- row u three points, A, B, and C, are taken such that B is the middle point of the segment AC, it does not follow that the three points A', B', C' in a point-row perspective to u will be so related. Relations between the elements of any form which do go over unaltered to the corresponding elements of a form projectively related to it are called projective relations. Relations involving measurement of lines or of angles are not projective. 25. Desargues's theorem. We consider first the following beautiful theorem, due to Desargues and called by his name. If two triangles, A, B, C and A', B', C', are so situated that the lines AA', BB', and CC' all meet in a point, then the pairs of sides AB and A'B', BC and B'C', CA and C'A' all meet on a straight line, and conversely. Fig. 3 Let the lines AA', BB', and CC' meet in the point M (Fig. 3). Conceive of the figure as in space, so that M is the vertex of a trihedral angle of which the given triangles are plane sections. The lines AB and A'B' are in the same plane and must meet when produced, their point of intersection being clearly a point in the plane of each triangle and therefore in the line of intersection of these two planes. Call this point P. By similar reasoning the point Q of intersection of the lines BC and B'C' must lie on this same line as well as the point R of intersection of CA and C'A'. Therefore the points P, Q, and R all lie on the same line m. If now we consider the figure a plane figure, the points P, Q, and R still all lie on a straight line, which proves the theorem. The converse is established in the same manner. 26. Fundamental theorem concerning two complete quadrangles. This theorem throws into our hands the following fundamental theorem concerning two complete quadrangles, a complete quadrangle being defined as the figure obtained by joining any four given points by straight lines in the six possible ways. Given two complete quadrangles, K, L, M, N and K', L', M', N', so related that KL, K'L', MN, M'N' all meet in a point A; LM, L'M', NK, N'K' all meet in a point Q; and LN, L'N' meet in a point B on the line AC; then the lines KM and K'M' also meet in a point D on the line AC. [pg 15] [pg 16] [pg 17] Fig. 4 For, by the converse of the last theorem, KK', LL', and NN' all meet in a point S (Fig. 4). Also LL', MM', and NN' meet in a point, and therefore in the same point S. Thus KK', LL', and MM' meet in a point, and so, by Desargues's theorem itself, A, B, and D are on a straight line. 27. Importance of the theorem. The importance of this theorem lies in the fact that, A, B, and C being given, an indefinite number of quadrangles K', L', M', N' my be found such that K'L' and M'N' meet in A, K'N' and L'M' in C, with L'N' passing through B. Indeed, the lines AK' and AM' may be drawn arbitrarily through A, and any line through B may be used to determine L' and N'. By joining these two points to C the points K' and M' are determined. Then the line joining K' and M', found in this way, must pass through the point D already determined by the quadrangle K, L, M, N. The three points A, B, C, given in order, serve thus to determine a fourth point D. 28. In a complete quadrangle the line joining any two points is called the opposite side to the line joining the other two points. The result of the preceding paragraph may then be stated as follows: Given three points, A, B, C, in a straight line, if a pair of opposite sides of a complete quadrangle pass through A, and another pair through C, and one of the remaining two sides goes through B, then the other of the remaining two sides will go through a fixed point which does not depend on the quadrangle employed. 29. Four harmonic points. Four points, A, B, C, D, related as in the preceding theorem are called four harmonic points. The point D is called the fourth harmonic of B with respect to A and C. Since B and D play exactly the same rôle in the above construction, B is also the fourth harmonic of D with respect to A and C. B and D are called harmonic conjugates with respect to A and C. We proceed to show that A and C are also harmonic conjugates with respect to B and D—that is, that it is possible to find a quadrangle of which two opposite sides shall pass through B, two through D, and of the remaining pair, one through A and the other through C. [pg 18] Fig. 5 Let O be the intersection of KM and LN (Fig. 5). Join O to A and C. The joining lines cut out on the sides of the quadrangle four points, P, Q, R, S. Consider the quadrangle P, K, Q, O. One pair of opposite sides passes through A, one through C, and one remaining side through D; therefore the other remaining side must pass through B. Similarly, RS passes through B and PS and QR pass through D. The quadrangle P, Q, R, S therefore has two opposite sides through B, two through D, and the remaining pair through A and C. A and C are thus harmonic conjugates with respect to B and D. We may sum up the discussion, therefore, as follows: 30. If A and C are harmonic conjugates with respect to B and D, then B and D are harmonic conjugates with respect to A and C. 31. Importance of the notion. The importance of the notion of four harmonic points lies in the fact that it is a relation which is carried over from four points in a point-row u to the four points that correspond to them in any point-row u' perspective to u. To prove this statement we construct a quadrangle K, L, M, N such that KL and MN pass through A, KN and LM through C, LN through B, and KM through D. Take now any point S not in the plane of the quadrangle and construct the planes determined by S and all the seven lines of the figure. Cut across this set of planes by another plane not passing through S. This plane cuts out on the set of seven planes another quadrangle which determines four new harmonic points, A', B', C', D', on the lines joining S to A, B, C, D. But S may be taken as any point, since the original quadrangle may be taken in any plane through A, B, C, D; and, further, the points A', B', C', D' are the intersection of SA, SB, SC, SD by any line. We have, then, the remarkable theorem: 32. If any point is joined to four harmonic points, and the four lines thus obtained are cut by any fifth, the four points of intersection are again harmonic. 33. Four harmonic lines. We are now able to extend the notion of harmonic elements to pencils of rays, and indeed to axial pencils. For if we define four harmonic rays as four rays which pass through a point and which pass one through each of four harmonic points, we have the theorem Four harmonic lines are cut by any transversal in four harmonic points. 34. Four harmonic planes. We also define four harmonic planes as four planes through a line which pass one through each of four harmonic points, and we may show that Four harmonic planes are cut by any plane not passing through their common line in four harmonic lines, and also by any line in four harmonic points. For let the planes α, β, γ, δ, which all pass through the line g, pass also through the four harmonic points A, B, C, D, so that α passes through A, etc. Then it is clear that any plane π through A, B, C, D will cut out four harmonic lines from the four planes, for they are lines through the intersection P of g with the plane π, and they pass through the given harmonic points A, B, C, D. Any other plane σ cuts g in a point S and cuts α, β, γ, δ in four lines that meet π in four points A', B', C', D' lying on PA, PB, PC, and PD respectively, and are thus four harmonic hues. Further, any ray cuts α, β, γ, δ in four harmonic points, since any plane through the ray gives four harmonic lines of intersection. [pg 19] [pg 20] [pg 21] 35. These results may be put together as follows: Given any two assemblages of points, rays, or planes, perspectively related to each other, four harmonic elements of one must correspond to four elements of the other which are likewise harmonic. If, now, two forms are perspectively related to a third, any four harmonic elements of one must correspond to four harmonic elements in the other. We take this as our definition of projective correspondence, and say: 36. Definition of projectivity. Two fundamental forms are protectively related to each other when a one-to-one correspondence exists between the elements of the two and when four harmonic elements of one correspond to four harmonic elements of the other. Fig. 6 37. Correspondence between harmonic conjugates. Given four harmonic points, A, B, C, D; if we fix A and C, then B and D vary together in a way that should be thoroughly understood. To get a clear conception of their relative motion we may fix the points L and M of the quadrangle K, L, M, N (Fig. 6). Then, as B describes the point-row AC, the point N describes the point-row AM perspective to it. Projecting N again from C, we get a point-row K on AL perspective to the point-row N and thus projective to the point-row B. Project the point-row K from M and we get a point-row D on AC again, which is projective to the point-row B. For every point B we have thus one and only one point D, and conversely. In other words, we have set up a one-to-one correspondence between the points of a single point-row, which is also a projective correspondence because four harmonic points B correspond to four harmonic points D. We may note also that the correspondence is here characterized by a feature which does not always appear in projective correspondences: namely, the same process that carries one from B to D will carry one back from D to B again. This special property will receive further study in the chapter on Involution. 38. It is seen that as B approaches A, D also approaches A. As B moves from A toward C, D moves from A in the opposite direction, passing through the point at infinity on the line AC, and returns on the other side to meet B at C again. In other words, as B traverses AC, D traverses the rest of the line from A to C through infinity. In all positions of B, except at A or C, B and D are separated from each other by A and C. 39. Harmonic conjugate of the point at infinity. It is natural to inquire what position of B corresponds to the infinitely distant position of D. We have proved (§ 27) that the particular quadrangle K, L, M, N employed is of no consequence. We shall therefore avail ourselves of one that lends itself most readily to the solution of the problem. We choose the point L so that the triangle ALC is isosceles (Fig. 7). Since D is supposed to be at infinity, the line KM is parallel to AC. Therefore the triangles KAC and MAC are equal, and the triangle ANC is also isosceles. The triangles CNL and ANL are therefore equal, and the line LB bisects the angle ALC. B is therefore the middle point of AC, and we have the theorem The harmonic conjugate of the middle point of AC is at infinity. [pg 22] [pg 23] Fig. 7 40. Projective theorems and metrical theorems. Linear construction. This theorem is the connecting link between the general protective theorems which we have been considering so far and the metrical theorems of ordinary geometry. Up to this point we have said nothing about measurements, either of line segments or of angles. Desargues's theorem and the theory of harmonic elements which depends on it have nothing to do with magnitudes at all. Not until the notion of an infinitely distant point is brought in is any mention made of distances or directions. We have been able to make all of our constructions up to this point by means of the straightedge, or ungraduated ruler. A construction made with such an instrument we shall call a linear construction. It requires merely that we be able to draw the line joining two points or find the point of intersection of two lines. 41. Parallels and mid-points. It might be thought that drawing a line through a given point parallel to a given line was only a special case of drawing a line joining two points. Indeed, it consists only in drawing a line through the given point and through the "infinitely distant point" on the given line. It must be remembered, however, that the expression "infinitely distant point" must not be taken literally. When we say that two parallel lines meet "at infinity," we really mean that they do not meet at all, and the only reason for using the expression is to avoid tedious statement of exceptions and restrictions to our theorems. We ought therefore to consider the drawing of a line parallel to a given line as a different accomplishment from the drawing of the line joining two given points. It is a remarkable consequence of the last theorem that a parallel to a given line and the mid-point of a given segment are equivalent data. For the construction is reversible, and if we are given the middle point of a given segment, we can construct linearly a line parallel to that segment. Thus, given that B is the middle point of AC, we may draw any two lines through A, and any line through B cutting them in points N and L. Join N and L to C and get the points K and M on the two lines through A. Then KM is parallel to AC. The bisection of a given segment and the drawing of a line parallel to the segment are equivalent data when linear construction is used. 42. It is not difficult to give a linear construction for the problem to divide a given segment into n equal parts, given only a parallel to the segment. This is simple enough when n is a power of 2. For any other number, such as 29, divide any segment on the line parallel to AC into 32 equal parts, by a repetition of the process just described. Take 29 of these, and join the first to A and the last to C. Let these joining lines meet in S. Join S to all the other points. Other problems, of a similar sort, are given at the end of the chapter. 43. Numerical relations. Since three points, given in order, are sufficient to determine a fourth, as explained above, it ought to be possible to reproduce the process numerically in view of the one-to-one correspondence which exists between points on a line and numbers; a correspondence which, to be sure, we have not established here, but which is discussed in any treatise on the theory of point sets. We proceed to discover what relation between four numbers corresponds to the harmonic relation between four points. [pg 24] [pg 25] Fig. 8 44. Let A, B, C, D be four harmonic points (Fig. 8), and let SA, SB, SC, SD be four harmonic lines. Assume a line drawn through B parallel to SD, meeting SA in A' and SC in C'. Then A', B', C', and the infinitely distant point on A'C' are four harmonic points, and therefore B is the middle point of the segment A'C'. Then, since the triangle DAS...

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